This page contains Debbie's notes on the basics of Blender: the Interface, Shortcuts, Selecting Objects, Transforming Objects, Moving Objects, Adding and Removing Objects, Adding Modifiers, Creating Diffuse/Specular materials, UV Unwrapping, Lighting, Camera Positioning, and how to render with Cycles (Blender's ray-trace based production render engine).
More elaboration on specific things:
Interface: Modes and Shortcuts
Blender has a context-dependent interface - the View and Mode that you are in (and where your mouse is hovering) will affect what the shortcuts will do.
You should get a mouse with 3 buttons.
Adding and Removing Objects